There has been tremendous development in the field of automotive transmissions over the past two decades, some of which include an increased speed number, expanded ratio spread, and improved efficiency and actuation quality. Electrification of automotive transmissions is the current strategy among various suppliers as a response to stringent legislation on emissions and fuel economy. Conventional automotive transmissions for internal combustion engines are generally classified into MT, AMT, AT, DCT, and CVT. The complexity of a mechanical system is generally lower than that of conventional multispeed transmissions. However, there has been progress in AT, DCT, and CVT, largely owing to the development of transmission technology. They are gradually replacing MT and AMT in light vehicles. A huge increase in the adoption rate of HEVs and PHEVs is estimated in the next decade. The transmissions in these vehicles include electromechanical coupling systems to attain different driving modes, such as series, parallel, and power-split modes. With inclusion of a hybrid module, electrification of conventional AT, DCT, and CVT has been made possible with add-on solutions, which helps in modular design and manufacture of the new components. DHTs are the latest type of transmission and are specifically developed for HEVs and PHEVs. On the other hand, in EVs, single-speed gearboxes are the most common today. It is not necessary for EVs to be mated to a complex multispeed transmission owing to the torque and efficiency characteristics of the EM. However, a two- or three-speed transmission is found to have benefit in reducing the size of the EM. Furthermore, improvement in efficiency and reduction in weight can be achieved with a complete integration of the EM with power electronics.
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