Low emissions zones and their impact on powertrain development
Transition of powertrain design from conventional to hybrid and electric propulsion systems to improve air quality
A study by the European Union (EU) in 2017 states that cars are responsible for around 12% of total carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions in the EU. By 2021, under the emission reduction targets planned by the EU, all new cars must achieve an average of 95 grams of CO₂ emissions per kilometer. This means fuel consumption of around 4.1L per 100 km, or 24.4 km/L, for petrol and 3.6L per 100 km, or 27.7 km/L, for diesel. One of the measures determined by the EU to improve air quality in metropolitan areas is the introduction of Low Emission Zones (LEZs), where entry of vehicles not meeting emission standards is regulated. According to the World Bank in 2018, the region of Europe has 72 of 100 people living in an urban metropolitan, where various types of vehicles are utilized for personal and commercial mobility.